Updated: Jul 12, Treatment of Septic and Suppurative Thrombophlebitis. Superficial thrombophlebitis is a common inflammatory-thrombotic disorder in which a thrombus develops in a vein located near the Bein Thrombophlebitis of Bein Thrombophlebitis skin. See Etiology and Workup. Although superficial thrombophlebitis usually occurs in the lower extremities, it also has been described in the penis and the breast Mondor disease.
Superficial thrombophlebitis can also develop anywhere that medical interventions Bein Thrombophlebitis, such as in the arm or neck external jugular vein when intravenous IV catheters are used. Bein Thrombophlebitis Etiology, Presentation, and Workup. Thrombosis and thrombophlebitis of the superficial venous system receive little attention in medical and surgical Bein Thrombophlebitis. However, thrombophlebitis is encountered frequently and, wird trophischen Geschwüren Behandlung von lokalen helfen it is usually a benign, self-limiting disease, it can be recurrent Bein Thrombophlebitis tenaciously persistent, at times causing significant incapacitation.
See Epidemiology and Prognosis. When affecting the great saphenous vein also referred to as the greater or long saphenous veinthrombophlebitis will sometimes Bein Thrombophlebitis into the deep venous system.
Damage to deep venous valves leads to chronic deep venous insufficiency often referred to as postphlebitic syndromeas well here Bein Thrombophlebitis recurrent pulmonary embolism PE and an increased risk of death.
Although the etiology is frequently obscure, superficial venous thrombosis is most often associated with one of the components of the Virchow triad; ie, intimal damage which can result from trauma, infection, or inflammationstasis or turbulent flow, or changes in blood constituents presumably causing increased coagulability.
In each type of superficial thrombophlebitis, the condition presents as redness Bein Thrombophlebitis tenderness along the course of the vein, usually accompanied by swelling. Bleeding also can occur at the site Bein Thrombophlebitis a varicose vein. Although unusual, superficial thrombophlebitis may occur Bein Thrombophlebitis the lesser saphenous vein, which empties into the popliteal vein. Superficial thrombophlebitis can also occur in the external jugular vein, if it has been Bein Thrombophlebitis for an infusion site.
Superficial thrombophlebitis of the upper extremities usually occurs at infusion sites or sites of trauma. Superficial thrombophlebitis is a clinical diagnosis in which the clinician identifies tender and inflamed superficial veins.
However, ruling out DVT in the clinical setting is difficult; further testing is often required to evaluate for this condition. See Presentation and Workup. Treatment for superficial thrombophlebitis is aimed at patient comfort and at preventing superficial phlebitis from involving the deep veins.
See Treatment and Medication. Superficial phlebitis Bein Thrombophlebitis http://operationphoenix.co/dr-bubnovskaya-gymnastik-fuer-krampfadern.php, such as phlebitis originating at an IV Bein Thrombophlebitis site, is referred to as septic thrombophlebitisa clinical entity requiring diagnostic and therapeutic approaches that are different from those applied to sterile phlebitis.
Microscopic thrombosis is a normal part of the dynamic balance of hemostasis. Inthe German pathologist Virchow recognized that if this dynamic balance were altered by venous Bein Thrombophlebitis or turbulence, abnormal coagulability, or vessel wall injuries, then microthrombi could propagate to form macroscopic thrombi.
In Bein Thrombophlebitis absence of a triggering event, neither venous stasis nor abnormal coagulability alone causes clinically important thrombosis, but vascular endothelial injury does reliably result in thrombus formation.
The initiating injury triggers an inflammatory response that results in immediate platelet Bein Thrombophlebitis at the injury site. Further platelet aggregation is mediated by thromboxane A2 TxA2 and by thrombin.
A more detailed visual of the coagulation pathway can be seen in the image below. Platelet aggregation due to TxA2 is inhibited irreversibly by aspirin and reversibly by other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs NSAIDs ; thrombin-mediated Bein Thrombophlebitis aggregation, on the other hand, is not affected by NSAIDs, including aspirin. This is why aspirin and other NSAIDs are somewhat effective in preventing arterial thrombosis, where platelet aggregation is mediated via TxA2, as seen in patients with stroke and myocardial infarction, but are not very effective in preventing read article thrombophlebitis, Bein Thrombophlebitis it is believed that clot formation is more of a result of thrombin activation.
The most important clinically identifiable risk factors for thrombophlebitis are a prior history of superficial phlebitis, DVT, Bein Thrombophlebitis PE. Some common risk markers include recent surgery or pregnancy, prolonged immobilization, and underlying malignancy. Phlebitis also occurs in diseases associated with vasculitis, such as polyarteritis nodosa periarteritis nodosa and Buerger disease thromboangiitis obliterans.
This is partly due to increased platelet stickiness and partly due to reduced fibrinolytic activity. The association between pregnancy and thrombophlebitis is of particular concern to women who carry the factor V Leiden or prothrombin Ca gene, because they already have Bein Thrombophlebitis predisposition to clotting, which would also be exacerbated by Bein Thrombophlebitis. Case-controlled and cohort studies based on clinical signs and symptoms of thrombosis suggest that by taking high-estrogen oral contraceptives, a woman may increase her risk of thrombosis by a factor of times, though the absolute risk remains low.
Newer low-dose Bein Thrombophlebitis contraceptives are Bein Thrombophlebitis with a much lower risk of thrombophlebitis, though the absolute risk has not been well quantified. Ecchymosis may be present early in the disease, indicating extravasation of blood associated with injury to the vein; this may turn to brownish pigmentation over the vein as the inflammation resolves.
Thrombophlebitis frequently occurs at the site of an IV infusion and is the result of irritating drugs, hypertonic solutions, or the intraluminal catheter or cannula itself. This is by far the most common type of thrombophlebitis encountered. Usually, redness and pain signal its presence while the infusion is being given, but thrombosis may manifest as a small lump days or weeks after the infusion apparatus has been removed.
It may take months to completely resolve. The features of iatrogenic form of traumatic chemical phlebitis may be deliberately produced by sclerotherapy during the treatment of varicose Bein Thrombophlebitis. Superficial thrombophlebitis frequently occurs in varicose veins.
It may extend up and down the saphenous vein or may remain confined to a cluster of Bein Thrombophlebitis varicosities away from Bein Thrombophlebitis main saphenous vein. Although thrombophlebitis may follow trauma to a varix, it often occurs in varicose veins without an antecedent cause.
Thrombophlebitis in Bein Thrombophlebitis varicose vein develops as a tender, hard knot and is frequently surrounded by erythema. At times, bleeding may occur as the reaction extends through the vein wall. It frequently is observed in varicose veins surrounding venous stasis ulcers. Superficial thrombophlebitis along the course Bein Thrombophlebitis the great saphenous vein is observed more often to progress to the deep system.
Infection-related thrombophlebitis is associated with several different conditions, including a serious complication of intravascular cannulation and can be suspected in patients who have persistent Bein Thrombophlebitis in the setting of appropriate antibiotic therapy. It also frequently is associated with septicemia.
Bein ThrombophlebitisDeTakats suggested that dormant infection in varicose veins was a factor in the development of thrombophlebitis occurring following operations or after injection treatments, trauma, or exposure to radiation therapy. Although numerous etiologic Bein Thrombophlebitis have been proposed for this Bein Thrombophlebitis, none have Bein Thrombophlebitis confirmed. The association of carcinoma with migratory thrombophlebitis was first reported by Trousseau, in Sproul noted migratory thrombophlebitis to be especially prevalent with carcinoma of the tail of the pancreas.
Thrombophlebitis is usually located in the anterolateral aspect of the upper portion of the breast or in the region extending from the Bein Thrombophlebitis portion of the breast across the submammary fold toward the costal margin and the epigastrium.
A characteristic finding is a tender, cordlike structure that may be best demonstrated by tensing the skin via elevation of the arm. The cause of Mondor disease is unknown, but a search for malignancy is indicated. Mondor disease is more likely to occur after breast surgery, with the use of oral contraceptives, and with protein C deficiency.
Thrombophlebitis of the dorsal vein of the penis, Bein Thrombophlebitis caused by trauma or repetitive injury, is also referred to as Mondor disease. However, Markovic et al reported that a common risk factor is age older than 60 years, though fewer complications occur in this age group.
However, there are no intrinsic, sex-linked risks for the disease. The prognosis in superficial thrombophlebitis is usually good. Superficial phlebitis is rarely associated with PE, Bein Thrombophlebitis it can occur, particularly if the process extends into a deep vein.
However, individuals with superficial venous thrombosis do not seem to have a great tendency to develop DVT. In contrast, patients with DVT are frequently found to have superficial venous thrombosis. The patient should be told to expect the disease process to persist for weeks or longer. If it occurs in the lower extremity in association with varicose veins, it has a high likelihood of recurrence unless excision is performed.
Because thrombophlebitis tends to recur if the vein has not been excised, instructing Bein Thrombophlebitis patient in ways to prevent stasis in the vein is usually advisable.
The use of elastic stockings may be indicated, especially if the patient plans to stand in an upright position for long periods. Slight elevation of the Bein Thrombophlebitis of the bed, avoidance of long periods of standing in an upright position, and avoidance of prolonged inactivity is recommended. For patient education information, see Varicose Continue readingDeep Vein Thrombosis Blood Clot in the Leg, DVTand Phlebitis.
Verlato F, Zucchetta P, Prandoni Bein Thrombophlebitis, Camporese G, Marzola MC, Salmistraro G, et al. An unexpectedly high rate of pulmonary embolism in patients with superficial thrombophlebitis of the thigh. The veins in thromboangiitis obliterans: With particular reference to arteriovenous anastomosis as a cure for the condition. Buerger's Disease: Pathology, Diagnosis and Treatment. Nagoya, Japan: University of Nagoya Press; Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol.
Pearson T, Bremmer M, Cohen J, Driscoll M. Vasculopathy related to cocaine adulterated with levamisole: A Bein Thrombophlebitis of the literature. McColl MD, Ramsay Bein Thrombophlebitis, Tait RC, et al. Superficial vein thrombosis: incidence in association with pregnancy and prevalence Bein Thrombophlebitis thrombophilic defects. Rosendaal FR, Helmerhorst FM, Vandenbroucke JP. Oral contraceptives, hormone replacement therapy and thrombosis.
Rush MD, Schoenfeld CN, Watson WA, et al. Skin necrosis and venous thrombosis from subcutaneous injection of charcoal lighter fluid naptha.
Am J Emerg Med. Mermel LA, Allon M, Bouza E, et al. Clinical practice spezielle von Krampfadern for the diagnosis and management of intravascular catheter-related infection: Update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Am J Med Sci. Altemeier WA, Hill EO, Fullen WD. Acute and recurrent thromboembolic disease: a click the following article concept Bein Thrombophlebitis etiology.
Carcinoma and venous thrombosis: Frequency of association of carcinoma in body or tail of pancreas with multiple venous thrombosis. Nazir SS, Khan M. Thrombosis of the dorsal vein of the penis Mondor's Disease : A case report and review of the literature. Bird V, Krasnokutsky S, Zhou HS, et al. Traumatic thrombophlebitis of the Bein Thrombophlebitis dorsal vein of the penis: Bein Thrombophlebitis occupational hazard. Markovic MD, Lotina SI, Bein Thrombophlebitis LB, et al.
Srp Arh Celok Lek. Wichers IM, Di Nisio M, Buller HR, et al. Treatment of superficial vein thrombosis to prevent deep vein thrombosis and Bein Thrombophlebitis embolism: a systematic review. Schonauer V, Kyrle PA, Weltermann A, et al. Superficial thrombophlebitis and risk for recurrent venous thromboembolism. Protein s deficiency in repetitive superficial thrombophlebitis.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost. Gillet JL, Monographie Lungenarterie P, Hanss M, Allaert FA, Chleir Bein Thrombophlebitis. Lutter KS, Kerr TM, Roedersheimer LR, et al. Superficial thrombophlebitis diagnosed by duplex scanning.
Bergqvist D, Jaroszewski H. Deep vein thrombosis in Bein Thrombophlebitis with superficial thrombophlebitis of the leg. Br Med J Bein Thrombophlebitis Res Ed. Superficial venous thrombosis and compression ultrasound imaging. Review: Fondaparinux reduces VTE Bein Thrombophlebitis recurrence in superficial thrombophlebitis of the leg.
Prandoni P, Tormene D, Pesavento R. Di Nisio M, Wichers IM, Middeldorp S. Treatment for superficial thrombophlebitis of the leg. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. Bein Thrombophlebitis H, Prandoni P, Mismetti P, et al. Fondaparinux for the treatment of superficial-vein thrombosis Bein Thrombophlebitis the legs. N Engl J Med. Bijsterveld NR, Moons AH, Boekholdt SM, et al. Ability of recombinant factor VIIa to reverse the anticoagulant effect Bein Thrombophlebitis the pentasaccharide fondaparinux in healthy volunteers.
Ascher E, Bein Thrombophlebitis JN, Salles-Cunha S, et al. Lesser saphenous vein thrombophlebitis: its natural history and implications for management. Lozano FS, Almazan A. Low molecular weight heparin Bein Thrombophlebitis saphenofemoral disconnection for the treatment of above knee greater saphenous thrombophlebitis: a prospective study. Factors predictive of Bein Thrombophlebitis thrombotic complications in patients with isolated superficial vein thrombosis.
Rathbun SW, Aston CE, Whitsett TL. A randomized trial of dalteparin compared with ibuprofen for the treatment of superficial thrombophlebitis. Principles of Bein Thrombophlebitis Vascular Surgery. Philadelphia, Pa: FA Davis; Liposomal heparin spray: a new formula in adjunctive treatment of superficial venous thrombosis.
Johnson G, DePalma RG. Superficial Bein Thrombophlebitis diagnosis and management. Philadelphia, Pa: WB Saunders; Vol 1:section XIX.
Kim J, Bein Thrombophlebitis S, Kent PJ. Clinical examination of varicose veins--a validation study. Ann R Coll Surg Engl. Marchiori A, Verlato F, Sabbion P, et al. High versus low doses of unfractionated heparin for the treatment of superficial thrombophlebitis of the leg. A prospective, controlled, randomized study. Murray CK, Beckius ML, McAllister K.
Fusarium proliferatum superficial suppurative Bein Thrombophlebitis. Neher JO, Safranek S, Greenwald JL. What is the best therapy for superficial thrombophlebitis?. Superficial Thrombophlebitis Treated by Enoxaparin Study Group. A pilot randomized double-blind comparison of a low-molecular-weight heparin, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent, and placebo in the treatment of superficial vein thrombosis.
Wester JP, Kuenen BC, Meuwissen OJ, et al. Mondor's disease as first thrombotic event in hereditary protein C deficiency and anticardiolipin antibodies.
David FM Brown, MD Associate Bein Thrombophlebitis, Division of Emergency Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Vice Chair, Department of Emergency Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital David FM Brown, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Emergency Physicians and Society for Academic Emergency Medicine Ryan Doss, MD Resident Physician, Department of Emergency Medicine, Detroit Medical Center, Wayne State University School of Medicine Ryan Doss, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Emergency PhysiciansAmerican Medical AssociationEmergency Medicine Residents AssociationMichigan College of Emergency Physiciansand Michigan State Medical Society Craig Bein Thrombophlebitis Feied, MD, FACEP, FAAEM, FACPh, Professor of Emergency Medicine, Georgetown Bein Thrombophlebitis School of Medicine; General Manager, Microsoft Enterprise Health Solutions Group Craig F Feied, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Emergency Medicine, American College of Emergency Physicians, American College of Phlebology, American College of Physicians, American Medical Association, American Medical Informatics Association, American Venous Forum, Medical Society of the District of Bein Thrombophlebitis, Society for Academic Emergency Medicine, and Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society Jonathan A Handler, MD, HSG Chief Deployment Architect, Microsoft Corporation, Adjunct Associate Professor, Department of Emergency Medicine, Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medine Bein Thrombophlebitis A Handler, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American College of Emergency Physicians, American Medical Informatics Association, Phi Beta Kappa, and Society for Academic Emergency Medicine Jeffrey Lawrence Kaufman, MD Associate Professor, Department of Surgery, Division of Vascular Bein Thrombophlebitis, Tufts University School of Medicine Jeffrey Lawrence Kaufman, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega AlphaAmerican College of SurgeonsAmerican Society for Artificial Internal OrgansAssociation for Academic SurgeryAssociation for Surgical EducationMassachusetts Medical SocietyPhi Beta Kappaand Society for Vascular Surgery Samuel M Keim, MD Associate Professor, Department of Emergency Medicine, Bein Thrombophlebitis of Arizona College of Medicine Samuel M Keim, MD is a member of the following medical Bein Thrombophlebitis American Academy of Emergency Medicine Bein Thrombophlebitis, American College of Emergency PhysiciansAmerican Medical AssociationAmerican Public Health Associationand Society for Academic Emergency Medicine Robert G Klever Jr, MD Resident Physician, Department of Emergency Medicine, Detroit Receiving Hospital, Wayne State University School of Medicine Robert Bein Thrombophlebitis Klever Jr, MD is a member of Bein Thrombophlebitis following medical societies: American College of Emergency PhysiciansEmergency Medicine Residents Associationand Society for Academic Emergency Medicine Eddy S Lang, MDCM, CCFP EMCSPQ Associate Professor, Senior Researcher, Division of Emergency Medicine, Department of Family Medicine, University of Calgary Faculty of Medicine; Assistant Professor, Department of Family Medicine, McGill Bein Thrombophlebitis Faculty of Medicine, Canada Eddy S Bein Thrombophlebitis, MDCM, CCFP EMCSPQ is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Emergency PhysiciansCanadian Association of Emergency Physiciansand Society for Academic Emergency Medicine William Bein Thrombophlebitis Marston, MDAssociate Professor, Department of Surgery, Division of Vascular Surgery, University of North Carolina School of Medicine William A.
Marston, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Surgeons, American Venous Forum, North Carolina Medical Society, Peripheral Vascular Surgery Society, and Southern Association Thrombophlebitis Spezialisten Vascular Surgery Nelson S Menezes, MD, FRCS EdinFACS Assistant Professor of Surgery, Weill Und Behandlung von Krampfadern in Bishkek moderne Medical College; Chief of Vascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, Brooklyn Hospital Center Bein Thrombophlebitis S Menezes, MD, FRCS EdinFACS is a member of the following medical societies: American College of SurgeonsInternational Bein Thrombophlebitis of Endovascular SpecialistsMedical Society of the State of New Yorkand Society for Vascular Surgery Travis J Phifer, MD Bein Thrombophlebitis, Division of Vascular Surgery, Professor, Bein Thrombophlebitis of Surgery and Radiology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center in Shreveport Travis J Phifer, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Emergency PhysiciansAmerican College of SurgeonsAmerican Medical AssociationAssociation for Academic SurgerySociety for Academic Emergency Medicine Bein Thrombophlebitis, Society for Vascular Surgeryand Society of Critical Care Medicine Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference.
Log In Sign Up It's Free! Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next Bein Thrombophlebitis you visit. Blood coagulation thrombin and protein C pathways. Age older than 60 years however, there are fewer complications in this age group.
Hypercoagulable states eg, factor V Leiden mutation, prothrombin gene mutation, and protein S deficiency. Caustic materials, such as lighter fluid, injected intravenously. Superficial thrombophlebitis is a common condition worldwide. Thrombosis of great saphenous vein and tributaries.
What to Read Next on Medscape. Related Conditions and Diseases. Anticoagulation in Deep Vein Thrombosis. Bedside Ultrasonography in Deep Vein Thrombosis. Deep Venous Thrombosis Prophylaxis in Orthopedic Surgery. Deep Venous Thrombosis Risk Stratification. Bein Thrombophlebitis Use in Bein Thrombophlebitis Venous Thrombosis. Emerging Anticoagulant Agents in Deep Venous Thrombosis. Successful Use of Rivaroxaban in Postoperative Deep Vein Thrombosis of the Lower Limb Following Instability With Warfarin.
Outcomes Worse for Upper-Extremity Deep Vein Thrombosis. SURVET: Evaluating Sulodexide for Deep Vein Thrombosis. Superficial Venous Insufficiency: Varicose Veins and Venous Ulcers. According to Cardiologists View More. Need a Curbside Consult? Share cases and questions with Physicians Bein Thrombophlebitis Medscape consult.
Heuschnupfen und Allergien — was bringt die Nasendusche? Bein Thrombophlebitis eine Phlebitis kann ein Blutgerinnsel entstehen. Sie geht praktisch immer mit einer Thrombose einher und wird daher auch als tiefe Venenthrombose oder Phlebothrombose bezeichnet. Die Abgrenzung ist wichtig, da sich die Bein Thrombophlebitis und der Krankheitsverlauf der beiden Formen unterscheiden.
Diesen kurzen, biegsamen Kunststoffschlauch bringt Bein Thrombophlebitis Arzt meist in eine Go here am Arm oder der Hand, seltener von Prävention Creme Krampfadern am Kopf ein. Eine Sonderform der Thrombophlebitis ist die sogenannte Thrombophlebitis migrans "migrare", lateinisch: wandern.
Ein vorsichtiges Abtasten dieses Bereichs verursacht Schmerzen. Bakterielle Infektionen bei einer Bein Thrombophlebitis lassen sich mit Antibiotika behandeln. In diesem Fall kommen Medikamente zum Einsatz, welche die Blutgerinnung hemmen, zum Beispiel Heparin. Zur Behandlung einer tiefen Venenthrombose ist normalerweise ein Krankenhausaufenthalt notwendig.
Hier zielt die Behandlung vor allem darauf ab, eine Lungenembolie zu verhindern. Angiologie DGA : Diagnostik und Therapie der Venenthrombose und der Lungenembolie. Lesen Sie alles zu Anzeichen, Risiken und Hier lesen Sie alles Impulsiv, unaufmerksam, zappelig — Kinder mit ADHS ecken oft an. Symptom-Checker Finden Sie mit dem Symptom-Checker heraus, welche Krankheiten sich hinter Ihren Symptomen verbergen.
Wie entsteht ein Schlaganfall? Testen Sie Ihr Wissen! Der Inhalt von NetDoktor. Krankheiten A-Z Untersuchungen Therapien Laborwerte Vorsorgechecks. Bein Thrombophlebitis — was die Krankheit bedeutet. Alles zum Thema Hausstauballergie. Kopfschmerzen - Ursachen, Tipps und Hilfe. Symptom-Checker: Frag den NetDoktor! Mundgeruch - was Bein Thrombophlebitis steckt. Ingwerwurzel gegen Verdauungs- beschwerden. Magazinartikel - frisch aus der Redaktion.
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